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PubMed Research Methodology Search Filters and Limits

Updated: May 19


Your search results are only as good as your search. Use a filter to separate the wheat from the chaff!


There will be a separate blog that covers subject oriented filters, such as vaccinations, age groups, etc. Stay tuned!


Be sure you take a look at the blog which gives an overview of search filters/search hedges. It can be found at: About Search Filters.


Run the subject content of the search strategy, then add the search filter and combine. Any additional limits, such as language or publication dates, would follow. Here is an example using the clinical trials search filter:


This also shows the magic of using and. Line 3 returned over 446,600 citations; line 6 returned over 2.72 million! Combining them with and reduced the number to a little over 43,200. Adding in the search filter, then limiting by language and date returns a little under 4,900 citations for potential clinical trials.


Following are research methodology search filters for the National Library of Medicine PubMed database. You cannot use these in other databases unless you first adapt the vocabulary to the database and the syntax to the interface.


All searches have been tested against other filters including earlier versions as well as other filters found online.

Note: Please contact me if you are interested in how I developed and tested these search filters.


Search for the family of reviews & Meta-Analyses

This search was updated using the typologies of reviews listed in Sutton, Clowes, Preston, & Booth (2019), "Meeting the review family: Exploring review types and associated information retrieval requirements". It is not limited to systematic reviews but also includes scoping reviews, umbrella reviews, rapid reviews, narrative reviews, as well as other reviews described in:

Sutton A, Clowes M, Preston L, Booth A. Meeting the review family: exploring review types and associated information retrieval requirements. Health Info Libr J. 2019;36(3):202-22. PubMed record


Updated April 14, 2021

("Systematic Review"[Publication Type:NoExp] OR ((comprehensive[Title/Abstract] OR integrated[Title/Abstract] OR integrative[Title/Abstract] OR mapping[Title/Abstract] OR methodology[Title/Abstract] OR narrative[Title/Abstract] OR scoping[Title/Abstract] OR systematic[Title/Abstract]) AND (search[Title/Abstract] OR searched[Title/Abstract] OR searches[Title/Abstract] OR studies[Title/Abstract]) AND (cinahl[Title/Abstract] OR cochrane[Title/Abstract] OR embase[Title/Abstract] OR psycinfo[Title/Abstract] OR pubmed[Title/Abstract] OR medline[Title/Abstract] OR scopus[Title/Abstract] OR "web of science"[Title/Abstract] OR bibliographic review[Title/Abstract] OR bibliographic reviews[Title/Abstract] OR literature review[Title/Abstract] OR literature reviews[Title/Abstract] OR literature search[Title/Abstract] OR literature searches[Title/Abstract] OR qualitative review[Title/Abstract] OR qualitative reviews[Title/Abstract] OR quantitative review[Title/Abstract] OR quantitative reviews[Title/Abstract])) OR comprehensive review[Title/Abstract] OR comprehensive reviews[Title/Abstract] OR comprehensive search[Title/Abstract] OR comprehensive searches[Title/Abstract] OR critical review[Title/Abstract] OR critical reviews[Title/Abstract] OR evidence assessment[Title/Abstract] OR evidence review[Title/Abstract] OR exploratory review[Title/Abstract] OR framework synthesis[Title/Abstract] OR Integrated review[Title/Abstract] OR integrated reviews[Title/Abstract] OR integrative review[Title/Abstract] OR integrative reviews[Title/Abstract] OR mapping review[Title/Abstract] OR "meta-review"[Title/Abstract] OR "meta-synthesis"[Title/Abstract] OR methodology review[Title/Abstract] OR mixed methods review[Title/Abstract] OR mixed methods synthesis[Title/Abstract] OR narrative review[Title/Abstract] OR narrative reviews[Title/Abstract] OR ("PRISMA"[Title/Abstract] AND preferred[Title/Abstract]) OR PRISMA-P[Title/Abstract] OR prognostic review[Title/Abstract] OR psychometric review[Title/Abstract] OR rapid evidence assessment[Title/Abstract] OR rapid literature review[Title/Abstract] OR "rapid literature search"[Title/Abstract] OR rapid realist[Title/Abstract] OR rapid review[Title/Abstract] OR rapid reviews[Title/Abstract] OR "review of reviews"[Title/Abstract] OR scoping review[Title/Abstract] OR scoping reviews[Title/Abstract] OR scoping study[Title/Abstract] OR "state of the art review"[Title/Abstract] OR "systematic evidence map"[Title/Abstract] OR "systematic evidence mapping"[Title/Abstract] OR systematic literature[Title/Abstract] OR systematic Medline[Title/Abstract] OR systematic PubMed[Title/Abstract] OR systematic review[Title/Abstract] OR systematic reviews[Title/Abstract] OR systematic search[Title/Abstract] OR systematic searches[Title/Abstract] OR systematical literature review[Title/Abstract] OR systematical review[Title/Abstract] OR systematical reviews[Title/Abstract] OR "systematically identified"[Title/Abstract] OR "systematically review"[Title/Abstract] OR "systematically reviewed"[Title/Abstract] OR umbrella review[Title/Abstract] OR umbrella reviews[Title/Abstract] OR "Cochrane Database Syst Rev"[ta] OR "Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep)"[ta] OR "Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ)"[ta] OR "meta-analysis as topic"[MESH:NOEXP] OR Meta-Analysis[Publication Type:NoExp] OR "network meta-analysis"[mesh:noexp] OR meta analyses[ot] OR meta analyses[Title/Abstract] OR meta analysis[Title/Abstract] OR meta analysis[Title/Abstract] OR meta analytic[ot] OR meta analytic[Title/Abstract] OR meta analytical[ot] OR meta analytical[Title/Abstract] OR meta analytics[Title/Abstract] OR meta analyze[ot] OR meta analyze[Title/Abstract] OR (meta[ot] AND analyzed[ot]) OR meta analyzed[Title/Abstract] OR meta regression[Title/Abstract] OR metaanalyses[ot] OR metaanalyses[Title/Abstract] OR metaanalysis[ot] OR metaanalysis[Title/Abstract] OR metaanalytic[Title/Abstract] OR metaanalyze[Title/Abstract] OR metaanalyzed[Title/Abstract] OR metaregression[Title/Abstract])


Previous version April 16, 2019

("Systematic Review"[PTYP] OR systematic critical review[tiab] OR systematic literature review[tiab] OR systematic literature search[tiab] OR systematic review[tiab] OR "systematic review of systematic reviews"[tiab] OR systematic reviews[tiab] OR systematic search[tiab] OR ((comprehensive[tiab] or systematic[tiab]) AND (bibliographic review[tiab] OR literature review[tiab] OR literature search[tiab] OR literature searches[tiab] OR narrative review[tiab])) OR comprehensive review[tiab] OR comprehensive search[tiab] OR evidence assessment[tiab] OR evidence review[tiab] OR integrative literature[tiab] OR integrative review[tiab] OR integrative reviews[tiab] OR (mapping[tiab] AND literature review[tiab]) OR mapping review[tiab] OR meta-review[tiab] OR rapid literature review[tiab] OR rapid literature search[tiab] OR rapid review[tiab] OR rapid reviews[tiab] OR scoping literature[tiab] OR scoping review[tiab] OR scoping reviews[tiab] OR scoping study[tiab] OR systematic narrative review[tiab] OR systematic qualitative review[tiab] OR systematic quantitative review[tiab] OR systematical literature review[tiab] OR systematical review[tiab] OR systematical reviews[tiab] OR umbrella review[tiab] OR umbrella reviews[tiab] OR cinahl[TIAB] OR cochrane[TIAB] OR embase[TIAB] OR medline[TIAB] OR psyclit[TIAB] OR (psycinfo[TIAB] NOT "psycinfo database"[TIAB]) OR pubmed[TIAB] OR scopus[TIAB] OR "sociological abstracts"[TIAB] OR "web of science"[TIAB] OR "Cochrane Database Syst Rev"[JO] OR "Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep)"[JO] OR "Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ)"[JO] OR "meta-analysis as topic"[MESH:noexp] OR Meta-Analysis[PTYP] OR "network meta-analysis"[mesh:noexp] OR meta analyses[ot] OR meta analyses[TIAB] OR meta analysis[TIAB] OR meta analytic[TIAB] OR meta analytical[TIAB] OR meta analytics[TIAB] OR meta analyze[TIAB] OR meta analyzed[TIAB] OR metaanalyses[TIAB] OR metaanalysis[ot] OR metaanalysis[TIAB] OR metaanalytic[TIAB] OR metaanalyze[TIAB] OR metaanalyzed[TIAB])


Older version: April 1, 2019

("Systematic Review" [PTYP] OR ((comprehensive*[TIAB] OR integrative[TIAB] OR mapping[TIAB] OR rapid[TIAB] OR scoping[TIAB] OR systematic[tiab] OR systematical[tiab] OR systematicallly[tiab] OR systematically[tiab] OR systematicaly[tiab] OR systematicly[tiab] OR systematicreview[tiab] OR systematicreviews[tiab] OR umbrella[TIAB]) AND (bibliographic[TIAB] OR bibliographical[TIAB] OR bibliographically[TIAB] OR bibliographics[TIAB] OR literature[TIAB] OR review[TIAB] OR reviews[TIAB])) OR "state of the art review"[TIAB] OR "research synthesis"[TIAB] OR ((((information[TIAB] OR data[TIAB]) and synthesis[TIAB]) OR (data[TIAB] AND (extract[TIAB] OR extracting[TIAB] OR extractings[TIAB] OR extractioin[TIAB] OR extraction[TIAB]))) AND (review[TIAB] OR review[PTYP])) OR (cinahl[TIAB] OR (cochrane[TIAB] AND (trial[TIAB] OR trials[TIAB]) OR embase[TIAB] OR medline[TIAB] OR psyclit[TIAB] OR (psycinfo[TIAB] not "psycinfo database"[TIAB]) OR pubmed[TIAB] OR scopus[TIAB] OR "sociological abstracts"[TIAB] OR "web of science"[TIAB]) OR "Cochrane Database Syst Rev"[JO] OR "Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep)"[JO] OR "Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ)"[JO] OR (review[TIAB] AND (rationale[TIAB] OR evidence[TIAB]) AND review[Publication Type:NoExp) OR "meta-analysis as topic"[MESH:NOEXP] OR Meta-Analysis[Publication Type:NoExp] OR "network meta-analysis"[mesh:noexp] OR meta analyses[ot] OR meta analyses[tiab] OR meta analysis[tiab] OR meta analysis[tiab] OR meta analytic[ot] OR meta analytic[tiab] OR meta analytical[ot] OR meta analytical[tiab] OR meta analytics[tiab] OR meta analyze[ot] OR meta analyze[tiab] OR (meta[ot] AND analyzed[ot]) OR meta analyzed[tiab] OR metaanalyses[ot] OR metaanalyses[tiab] OR metaanalysis[ot] OR metaanalysis[tiab] OR metaanalytic[tiab] OR metaanalyze[tiab] OR metaanalyzed[tiab])


Just Cochrane reviews

"Cochrane Database Syst Rev"[JO]


Just Meta-Analysis (Updated April 9, 2021)

("meta-analysis as topic"[MESH:NOEXP] OR Meta-Analysis[Publication Type:NoExp] OR "network meta-analysis"[mesh:noexp] OR meta analyses[ot] OR meta analyses[tiab] OR meta analysis[tiab] OR meta analysis[tiab] OR meta analytic[ot] OR meta analytic[tiab] OR meta analytical[ot] OR meta analytical[tiab] OR meta analytics[tiab] OR meta analyze[ot] OR meta analyze[tiab] OR (meta[ot] AND analyzed[ot]) OR meta analyzed[tiab] OR meta regression[tiab] OR metaanalyses[ot] OR metaanalyses[tiab] OR metaanalysis[ot] OR metaanalysis[tiab] OR metaanalytic[tiab] OR metaanalyze[tiab] OR metaanalyzed[tiab] OR metaregression[tiab])


Earlier version: April 15, 2019

("meta-analysis as topic"[MESH:NOEXP] OR Meta-Analysis[PTYP] OR "network meta-analysis"[mesh:noexp] OR meta analyses[ot] OR meta analyses[TIAB] OR meta analysis[ot] OR meta analysis[TIAB] OR meta analytic[ot] OR meta analytic[TIAB] OR meta analytical[ot] OR meta analytical[TIAB] OR (meta[ot] AND analytics[ot]) OR meta analytics[TIAB] OR meta analyze[ot] OR meta analyze[TIAB] OR (meta[ot] AND analyzed[ot]) OR meta analyzed[TIAB] OR metaanalyses[ot] OR metaanalyses[TIAB] OR metaanalysis[ot] OR metaanalysis[TIAB] OR metaanalytic[TIAB] OR metaanalyze[TIAB] OR metaanalyzed[TIAB])


Just Network Meta-Analysis (updated December 8, 2020)

("network meta-analysis"[mesh:noexp] OR "network meta analyses"[TIAB] OR network meta analysis[ot] OR network meta analysis[TIAB] OR indirect treatment comparison[ot] OR indirect treatment comparison[tiab] OR ((((mixed[ot] OR mixed[tiab] OR indirect[ot] OR indirect[tiab] OR indirectly[ot] OR indirectly[tiab]) AND (treatment[ot] OR treatment[tiab] OR treatments[ot] OR treatments[tiab] OR intervention[ot] OR intervention[tiab] OR interventions[ot] OR interventions[tiab] OR therapeutic[ot] OR therapeutic[tiab] OR therapeutics[ot] OR therapeutics[tiab]) AND (comparison[ot] OR comparison[TIAB] OR comparisons[ot] OR comparisons[TIAB])) OR mixed treatment[ot] OR mixed treatment[TIAB] OR mixed treatments[ot] OR mixed treatments[tiab] OR multiple treatment[ot] OR multiple treatment[TIAB] OR multiple treatments[ot] OR multiple treatments[TIAB]) AND ("meta-analysis as topic"[MESH:noexp] OR Meta-Analysis[PTYP] OR (Bayesian[ot] AND statistical[ot]) OR (Bayesian[tiab] AND statistical[tiab]) OR Bayesian statistics[ot] OR Bayesian statistics[tiab] OR meta analyses[ot] OR meta analyses[TIAB] OR meta analysis[ot] OR meta analysis[TIAB] OR meta analytic[ot] OR meta analytic[TIAB] OR meta analytical[ot] OR (meta[ot] AND analytics[ot]) OR meta analytics[TIAB] OR meta analyze[ot] OR met analyze[TIAB] OR (meta[ot] AND analyzed[ot]) OR meta analyzed[TIAB] OR metaanalyses[ot] OR metaanalyses[TIAB] OR metaanalysis[ot] OR metaanalysis[TIAB] OR metaanalytic[TIAB] OR metaanalytical[tiab] OR metaanalyze[TIAB] OR metaanalyzed[TIAB])))


Publication type=Review

Review articles are frequently assigned the Review publication type to indicate the type of article. The search below will find articles that are general reviews of the literature as well as some systematic reviews

review[PTYP]


Retractions, Withdrawals, Corrections, Comments, Replies to comments (Updated May 18, 2021)

("retraction of publication"[PTYP] OR Published Erratum[PTYP] OR comment[PTYP] OR comment[ti] OR comments[ti] OR correction[ti] OR corrections[ti] OR "expression of concern"[ti] OR replies[ti] OR reply[ti] OR ((retraction[ti] OR withdrawal[ti]) AND (note[ti] or notice[ti])))

Note: When completing a systematic review, use this search after article review and study selection but before coding. You will need to be creative as there is no consistency in how the record appears.

EX: Consider doing a search with the author's name as well as a search with keywords from the title & abstract, then combine with OR to view the full list.

  1. wakefield aj[au] AND ("retraction of publication"[PTYP] OR Published Erratum[PTYP] OR comment[PTYP] OR comment[ti] OR comments[ti] OR correction[ti] OR corrections[ti] OR "expression of concern"[ti] OR replies[ti] OR reply[ti] OR ((retraction[ti] OR withdrawal[ti]) AND (note[ti] or notice[ti])))

  2. ((measles[tiab] OR mmr[tiab]) AND autism[tiab]) AND ("retraction of publication"[PTYP] OR Published Erratum[PTYP] OR comment[PTYP] OR comment[ti] OR comments[ti] OR correction[ti] OR corrections[ti] OR "expression of concern"[ti] OR replies[ti] OR reply[ti] OR ((retraction[ti] OR withdrawal[ti]) AND (note[ti] or notice[ti])))

  3. #1 OR #2

Also, be sure you check out RetractionWatch (https://retractionwatch.com/). "Tracking retractions as a window into the scientific process"


Clinical trials (updated 4/15/2019)

("Clinical Trial" [PTYP:NoExp] OR "Adaptive Clinical Trial" [PTYP:NoExp] OR "clinical trial, phase i"[PTYP] OR "clinical trial, phase ii"[PTYP] OR "clinical trial, phase iii"[PTYP] OR "clinical trial, phase iv"[PTYP] OR "controlled clinical trial"[PTYP] OR "multicenter study"[PTYP] OR "randomized controlled trial"[PTYP] OR "Clinical Trials as Topic"[mesh:noexp] OR "clinical trials, phase i as topic"[MeSH:noexp] OR "clinical trials, phase ii as topic"[MeSH:noexp] OR "clinical trials, phase iii as topic"[MeSH:noexp] OR "clinical trials, phase iv as topic"[MeSH:noexp] OR "controlled clinical trials as topic"[MeSH:noexp] OR "Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic"[MeSH:noexp] OR "randomized controlled trials as topic"[MeSH:noexp] OR "Equivalence Trials as Topic"[MeSH:noexp] OR "Intention to Treat Analysis"[MeSH:noexp] OR "Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic"[MeSH:noexp] OR "early termination of clinical trials"[MeSH:noexp] OR "multicenter studies as topic"[MeSH:noexp] OR “Double-Blind Method”[Mesh] OR "phase I"[tiab] OR "phase II"[tiab] OR "phase III"[tiab] OR "phase IV"[tiab] OR "phase 1"[tiab] OR "phase 2"[tiab] OR "phase 3"[tiab] OR "phase 4"[tiab] OR ((randomised[TIAB] OR randomized[TIAB]) AND (trial[TIAB] OR trials[tiab])) OR ((single[TIAB] OR double[TIAB] OR doubled[TIAB] OR triple[TIAB] OR tripled[TIAB] OR treble[TIAB] OR treble[TIAB]) AND (blind*[TIAB] OR mask*[TIAB])) OR ("4 arm"[tiab] OR "four arm"[tiab]))


Comparative studies (updated 8/8/2018)

This is a tough filter to do. The scope note from NLM for this study type is: “Comparison of outcomes, results, responses, etc for different techniques, therapeutic approaches or other inputs”; figuring out the right terms is complicated. Consider this a high-yield start to a search filter with probably a somewhat lower sensitivity (we're guessing ~80%) and higher specificity.

("comparative study"[PT:NOEXP] OR comparative[TIAB] OR "compared to"[TIAB] OR comparing[TIAB] OR comparison[TIAB])


Program evaluation/quasi-experimental studies (updated April 13, 2021)

(evaluation study[PT:NOEXP] OR "evaluation studies as topic"[MESH:NOEXP] OR "program evaluation"[MESH:NOEXP] OR validation study[PT:NOEXP] OR "validation studies as topic"[MESH:NOEXP] OR (pre-[TIAB] AND post-[TIAB]) OR (pretest[TIAB] AND posttest[TIAB]) OR ((intervention[tiab] OR program*[TIAB]) AND (behavior[tiab] OR behavioral[tiab] OR behaviour[tiab] OR behavioural[tiab] OR education[tiab] OR evaluate[TIAB] OR evaluated[TIAB] OR evaluates[TIAB] OR evaluating[TIAB] OR evaluation[TIAB] OR evaluations[TIAB] OR evaluator[TIAB] OR evaluators[TIAB] OR effective[tiab] OR effectiveness[TIAB])))


Epidemiologic Studies

NOTE: A word of caution for the next set of filters: Authors do not always use the appropriate terminology when describing their epidemiologic studies. This is true for the above as well, but we have noticed that the following study types are more frequently not identified as such in their titles or citations. Not only that, but a retrospective study can be a type of cohort study or it can be a type of case-control study! Use these filters with some caution. They will locate the kids of study they should, but only when the author knows what kind of study they have done and has described it as such!


Case-control studies (reviewed 8/8/2018)

(Case-Control Studies[MESH:NOEXP] OR Control Groups[MESH:NOEXP] OR Matched-Pair Analysis[MESH:NOEXP] OR (case*[TIAB] AND control*[TIAB]) OR (case[TIAB] AND comparison*[TIAB]) OR control group*[TIAB])


Cohort studies (updated 8/6/2018)

(cohort studies[mesh:noexp] OR longitudinal studies[mesh:noexp] OR follow-up studies[mesh:noexp] OR prospective studies[mesh:noexp] OR retrospective studies[mesh:noexp] OR cohort[TIAB] OR longitudinal[TIAB] OR prospective[TIAB])


Cross sectional studies (updated November 26, 2019)

(Cross-Sectional Studies[mesh:noexp] OR Prevalence[mesh:noexp] OR (association[tiab] and (studies[tiab] OR study[tiab])) OR cross-sectional[tiab] OR prevalence[tiab] OR transversal[tiab] OR (association[ti] OR associations[ti])


Below is a search for biomarkers and sepsis association and cross sectional studies.



Incidence studies (updated 8/78/2018)

(Incidence[MESH:NOEXP] OR incidence[TIAB] OR incidences[TIAB])


Prevalence studies (updated 8/7/2018)

(Prevalence[MESH:NOEXP] OR cross-sectional studies[MESH:NOEXP] OR prevalence[TIAB] OR prevalences[TIAB])


Qualitative studies (updated 8/8/2018)

(focus groups[MESH:NOEXP] OR "interviews as topic"[MESH:NOEXP] OR narration[MESH:NOEXP] OR qualitative research[MESH:NOEXP] OR ethnograph*[TIAB] OR "field work"[TIAB] OR fieldwork[TIAB] OR focus group*[TIAB] OR key informant*[TIAB] OR qualitative[TIAB] OR (((face-to-face[TIAB] OR guided[TIAB] OR in-depth[TIAB] OR indepth[TIAB] OR semi-structured[TIAB] OR structured[TIAB] OR unstructured[TIAB]) AND (discussion*[TIAB] OR interview*[TIAB] OR questionnaire*[TIAB]))))


Quality improvement (updated April 13, 2021)

("Quality Improvement"[Mesh] OR "implementation research"[tiab] OR "improve quality"[tiab] OR "improving quality"[tiab] OR "knowledge translation"[tiab] OR "pay for performance"[tiab] OR "performance improvement"[tiab] OR "quality assurance"[tiab] OR "quality improvement"[tiab] OR "quality improvements"[tiab] OR "quality indicator"[tiab] OR "quality indicators"[tiab] OR "quality measure"[tiab] OR "quality measures"[tiab] OR "quality metric"[tiab] OR "quality metrics"[tiab] OR "rapid cycle change"[tiab] OR "rapid cycle changes"[tiab] OR "report card"[tiab] OR "right care"[tiab] OR "six sigma"[tiab] OR squire[tiab])


Guidelines/Recommendations (updated December 15, 2020)

(guidelines as topic[MeSH:noexp] OR practice guidelines as topic[MeSH:noexp] OR Health Planning Guidelines[MeSH:noexp] OR practice guideline[MeSH:noexp] OR clinical protocols[MeSH:noexp] OR Consensus[MeSH:noexp] OR "Consensus Development Conference"[PTYP] OR "Consensus Development Conference, NIH"[PTYP] OR "Consensus Development Conferences as Topic"[MeSH:noexp] OR "Consensus Development Conferences, NIH as Topic"[MeSH:noexp] OR critical pathway[MeSH:noexp] OR (clinical[TIAB] AND pathway[TIAB]) OR (clinical[TIAB] AND pathways[TIAB]) OR (practice[TIAB] AND parameter[TIAB]) OR (practice[TIAB] AND parameters[TIAB]) OR algorithms[MeSH:noexp] OR care pathway[TIAB] OR care pathways[TIAB] OR guidance[TIAB] OR guideline*[TI])


Limits using NOT-NOT

Limit to US studies (updated December 2, 2020)

Run your search as usual. Go to Advanced (under the search text boox). Copy the statement below and paste into the search text box on the advanced page. Fill in the last line number of your search before hitting <Enter>.

NOTE: Be sure you put "#" in front of the last line number with no space.

(last-line-number NOT ((africa[MESH] OR asia[MESH] OR australia[MESH] OR canada[MESH] OR central america[mesh] OR europe[MESH] OR south america[MESH]) NOT (north america[MESH:NOEXP] OR united states[MESH])))

NOTE: Be sure you put "#" in front of the last line number with no space.

PubMed search showing the use of NOT-NOT to remove non-US studies from exercise and weight loss search


Limit to Human Studies (December 8, 2020)

Avoid checking selecting the limit to human studies-- you are limiting to a MeSH term. The newest, most current citations do not have MeSH terms. Consequently, you are kicking out the most recent research by using the human limiter. The following method does not do that. You will not remove 100% of the animal studies! But you also won't lose the most recent human studies.


last-line-number NOT ("Animals"[mesh] NOT "Humans"[mesh])

NOTE: Be sure you put "#" in front of the last line number with no space.


Limit by age groups (updated April 20, 2020)

The following method removes a significant number of studies (but NOT all) by age groups-- but it won't be 100%.

Remove child AND adolescent studies, keep adult studies

last-line-number NOT ((child[mesh] OR adolescent[mesh]) NOT adult[mesh])

Remove child studies, keep adolescent AND adult studies

last-line-number NOT (child[mesh] NOT (adolescent[mesh] AND adult[mesh]))

Remove child, adolescent, AND adult studies, keep infant studies

last-line-number NOT ((child[mesh] OR adolescent[mesh] OR adult[mesh]) NOT infant[mesh])


PubMed searches showing the use of NOT-NOT to remove animal studies, child studies, child/adolescent studies from exercise and weight loss search

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